- This webpage contains information I have collected about the "long haul" effects of COVID-19
- I am interested in the subject because of the following:
- I have a Master's Degree in Chemistry, and can understand medical/research journals
- My COVID-19 history
- Took the J&J vaccine in March
- Contracted the Alpha (original?) version in May, and experienced long-haul symtoms
- Contracted the Delta version in early fall
- Took the J&J booster in December
- Contracted the Omicron version in January
- I have a personal interest in "curing" my long-haul symptoms
- This webpage should NOT be considered medical advice; it is just a collection of information
- First, I will give you some basic information about some interesting chemicals
and symptoms, then I will relate them to long-haul COVID
- ATP is the "universal" energy molecule in the body.
Adenosine Triphosphate @ wikipedia.org
- ATP provides energy to drive many processes in living cells
- ATP is found in all known forms of life
- ATP is the "molecular unit of currency" in intracellular energy transfer
- Chemical processes regenerate ATP so that the human body recycles
ITS OWN BODY WEIGHT worth of ATP each day; this is equivalent to a
recycling rate of 1000-1500 times during a single day
- ATP is a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme
- ATP is composed on a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and
the triphosphate (the ATP molecule is shown above)
- ATP is also used in a form of signal transduction which is particularly important
in brain function
- ADT is one of four monomers that are required in the synthesis of RNA
- ADT serves as a neurotransmitter in many parts of the nervous system
Adenosine @ draxe.com
- Copper is essential for the synthesis of ATP
Adenosine and Sleep @ verywellhealth.com
Adenosine @ wikipedia.org
- It consists of adenine attached to a ribose molecule
- It is one of the four building blocks of DNA and RNA
- Caffeine acts as an antagonist for adenosine receptors in the brain;
this is true for coffee, tea, and chocolate
- Adenosine modulates many physiological processes
- In times of stress or injury, adenosine helps to prevent tissue damage
- Adenosine promotes the thickening of hair on people with thinning hair
- The principal component of THC induces sleep by increasing adenosine levels in
the basal forebrain
Adenine @ wikipedia.org
- Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose, as used to form RNA and ATP
- Deoxyadenosine is adenine attached to deoxyribose, as used to form DNA
- In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4
- Two vitamins (niacin and riboflavin) bind with adenine to form essential cofactors
Vitamin B4 - Adenine @ caasn.com
- It is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and the three coenzymes --
NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADH (a reduced form of NAD) and
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
- Brewer's (nutritional) yeast is the best food source of vitamin B4
- NAD (25-75 mg/day) is usually taken on an empty stomach; sometimes it is
combined with 200 mg of ribose
Adenosine and Sleep @ verywellhealth.com
- It forms ATP and ADP, and is an neurotransmitter within the brain
- Adenosine affects the initiation of sleep
- It acts as a depressant and inhibits many processes associated with wakefulness
- High levels of adenosine cause sleep
- Caffeine blocks your brain's adenosine processing, and sleep is inhibited
- The rate of adenosine metabolism seems to determine the quality of deep sleep
Adenosine @ youtube.com (good lecture)
What is Vitamin B4 by Dr. Berg @ youtube.com
HMB @ wikipedia.org
- It is a naturally produced substance that is used to promote wound healing and
to provide support for people with muscle wasting due to cancer or HIV/AIDS
- In healthy people, HMB will increase exercise-induced gains in muscle size,
muscle strength, and lean body mass; it will also reduce damage from exercise
and expedite recovery from exercise.
- HMB supplementation helps to preserve or increase lean body mass and muscle
strength in people exerpiencing age-related muscle loss.
- HMB stimulates the production of proteins and inhibits the breakdown of proteins
in muscle tissue.
- No adverse effects from long-term use have been found.
- HMB is sold as a dietary supplement at a cost of about US$30–50 per month
when taking 3 grams per day.
- HMB is also contained in several nutritional products, including certain
formulations of Ensure, Juven, and Myoplex.
- HMB is also present in insignificant quantities in certain foods, such as alfalfa,
asparagus, avocados, cauliflower, grapefruit, and catfish.
- Since only a small fraction of HMB's metabolic precursor, l-leucine, is
metabolized into HMB, pharmacologically active concentrations of the
compound in blood plasma and muscle can only be achieved by supplementing
- A healthy adult produces approximately 0.3 grams per day, while supplemental
HMB is usually taken in doses of 3–6 grams per day.
- HMB does not appear to significantly affect fat mass in older adults.
- HMB is eliminated via the kidneys, with roughly 10–40% of an ingested dose
being excreted unchanged in urine.
- HMB is synthesized in the human body through the metabolism of l-leucine,
a branched-chain amino acid. In healthy individuals, approximately 60% of dietary
l-leucine is metabolized after several hours, with roughly 5% (2–10% range) of
dietary l-leucine being converted to HMB.
- During biotin deficiency, HMB can be synthesized from MC-CoA via enoyl-CoA
hydratase and an unknown thioesterase enzyme.
- In healthy individuals, a minor pathway is the predominant route of HMB synthesis.
- In the blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy adults, the average
molar concentration of HMB has been measured at 4.0 micromolar. The average
concentration of HMB in the intramuscular fluid of healthy men of ages 21–23 has
been measured at 7.0 micromolar.
- In a study where participants consumed 2.42 grams of pure HMB-FA while fasting,
the average plasma HMB concentration increased from a basal level of 5.1 micromolar
to 408 micromolar after 30 minutes. At 150 minutes post-ingestion, the average plasma
HMB concentration among participants was 275 micromolar.
HMB @ nih.gov
- 38 mg/(kg BM) daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal
muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power
- Two forms exist: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca) and free-acid HMB (HMB-FA)
- HMB will increase Lean Body Mass and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations
- HMB is naturally produced in animals and humans from the amino acid Leucine
- Only 5% of leucine is being converted into HMB
- The typical dose of HMB is 3 grams per day
HMB @ webmd.com
Vitamin D status affects strength gains in older adults @ nih.gov
Long Term Effects of HMB and Vitamin D @ nih.gov
HMB and Vitamin D3 Improves Muscle Function @ nutritioninsight.com
Tony Horton video @ nuscledefense.com
- Take 3000 mg HMB and 2,000 IU D3 per day
Leucine @ wikipedia.org
- Leucine is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins
- It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it; it must
be obtained from the diet
- A tolerable upper intake for leucine in healthy adult men can be suggested
at 500 mg/kg/d or 35 g/d under acute dietary conditions
- In healthy individuals, approximately 60% of dietary l-leucine is metabolized
after several hours, with roughly 5% (2–10% range) of dietary l-leucine being
converted to HMB
- General Information
- D-Ribose & Alzheimer's Disease
- D-Ribose & Leg Cramps
- D-Ribose & Long-Haul COVID
- D-Ribose & Heart Disease
- D-Ribose & Fibromyalgia
- D-Ribose @ globalsweet.com
- Ribose is a naturally occurring sugar that helps to generate and recover ATP levels
(adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the body’s primary energy carrying molecule).
- ATP keeps your heart beating, muscles contracting and cells functioning. High levels
of cellular energy are required to keep tissues running at peak performance.
- Reports have also shown that Ribose can lower blood sugar levels.
- There is no known reason for people developing Fibromyalgia. However we do know that
people who have this condition also have low ATP levels and a reduced capacity to produce
ATP in their muscles. Ribose fuels ATP synthesis which reduces muscle pain and enhances
the quality of life for those suffering with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue.
D-Ribose Improves Pain and Quality of Life @ medicalnewstoday.com
D-Ribose Benefits Restless Legs Syndrome
Phosphorus @ wikipedia.org
- Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P
- Phosphorus is an element essential to life due to phosphate compounds
- Phosphates are a compoenent of DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids
Phosphorus for Health Professionals @ ods.od.nih.gov
- Phosphorus is a component of bones, teeth, DNA, and RNA
- Phosphorus in seeds is in the form of phytic acid, the storage form of
phosphorus. Because human intestines lack the phytase enzyme, much
phosphorus in this form is unavailable for absorption.
- Phosphorus and calcium make up hydroxyapatite
- In the United States, dairy products contribute about 20% of
total phosphorus intake.
- The absorption rate for the phosphorus naturally contained in food is
40%–70%; phosphorus from animal sources has a higher absorption rate
than that from plants.
- In infants, phosphorus bioavailability ranges from 85%–90% for
human milk to approximately 59% for soy-based formulas.
- Phosphorus is available in dietary supplements. Phosphorus in
supplements is usually in the form of phosphate salts (e.g.,
dipotassium phosphate or disodium phosphate) or phospholipids
(e.g., phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylserine). Products typically
provide 10% or less of the DV for phosphorus.
- The bioavailability of phosphate salts is approximately 70%.
- High phosphorus intakes rarely produce adverse effects in healthy people.
- Antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide, such as Maalox HRF and Rulox,
bind phosphorus in the intestines.
- Symptoms of Low Phosphorus
- Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency include loss of appetite, anxiety,
bone pain, fragile bones, stiff joints, fatigue, irregular breathing,
irritability, numbness, weakness, and weight change.
Phosphorus @ homeoint.org
- Symptoms related to low phosphorus
- Mind: great lowness of spirits, easily vexed, fearfullness, easily startled,
loss of memory, brain feels tired
- Head: vertigo, neuralgia, brain fog, losing hair
- Eyes: eye fatigue, edema of eyes and eye lids
- Symptoms of COVID
- Standard list
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- Headache, vertigo
- New loss of taste or smell <==
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
- Nausea or vomiting
Symptoms of Long COVID @ www.who.int
- Shortness of breath
- Cognitive dysfunction, which people call brain fog
- Anxiety or depression
- Muscle aches <==
- Loss of smell, loss of taste <==
- Phosphorus and COVID-19
- Low Serum Calcium and Phosphorus in Detecting COVID-19 Patients @ pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- Low calcium and low phosphorus are more prevalent in severe or critical
COVID-19 patients than moderate COVID-19 patients
- Calcium and phosphorus combined with lymphocyte count could obtain the best
discriminative performance for the severe COVID-19 patients
SARS-CoV-2: Influence of Phosphate and Magnesium @ journals.physiology.org
- SARS-CoV-2 may induce a cytokine storm that drains ATP whose regeneration
requires phosphate and Mg
- Symptoms observed in severe COVID-19 also fit well with those seen in classical
hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia
- "We, thus, argue that patients with COVID-19 should be monitored and treated
for phosphate and Mg deficiencies, ideally already in the early phases of infection."
PDF Version of the Article
- Chloroquine is typically supplied as a phosphate salt (12% P), and can
supply 10%-20% of the recommended dietary intake for phosphate.
- I had almost no sense of taste or smell after my original bout with COVID.
When I started taking Phosphorus supplements, my taste and smell returned; I also
had more energy and felt MUCH better.
- Reactivations or Reinfections
Understanding the Outcomes of COVID-19 @ microbiologyresearch.org
- There is evidence for highly prolonged shedding of COVID-19 in respiratory and faecal
samples, periodic recurrence of PCR positivity, and instances of reinfection associated
with a lack of protective immunity
- Prolonged shedding occurs irrespective of disease severity or development of
- COVID-19 shares characteristics with other RNA viruses such as hepatitis C; these
are capable of long-term persistence
- Initially it was found that COVID-19 shedding occurred for about 17-18 days,
with 20 days for severe cases.
- Immunocompetent subject remained PCR-positive for longer than 50 days, and in some
cases were shedding virus for up to 104 days.
- There is a frequent reactivation of virus shedding post-COVID-19.
- Several studies document frequent reactivation after 50 days or longer.
- Prolonged, reactivations or reinfections all occurred irrespective of the presense
of neutralizing antibody to COVID-19.
- The occurrence of prolonged infections was unrelated to the severity of COVID-19.
- Reinfections iwth COVID-19 can be as pathogenic and prolonged as primary infections.
- There is evidence for widespread systemic infection in the GI tract, heart, kidneys,
and central nervous system.
- A recent study had documented the presense of COVID-19 RNA in the olfactory
neuroepitheium in patients 110-196 days after COVID-19. These subjects reported
persistent or intermittent loss of smeel and taste dysfunctions.
- A large number of coronaviruses are able to establish long-term infections in
birds, bats, rodments, and domestic and companion animals.
- A study of human seasonal coronaviruses have found diagnosed virus after 30-40;
this indicates persistence or reactivation.
Reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 Infections Follow Recovery from COVID-19 @ sciencedirect.com
- Of the 109 patients, 27% experienced reactivation, and 24% of these were symptomatic
Antibodies Mimicking the Virus May Explain Long Haul COVID-19, Rare Vaccine Side Effects @
- Approximately one in four COVID-19 patients have lingering symptoms, even after
recovering from the virus
COVID-19 May Hide in Brains and Cause Relapses @ webmd.com
- The coronavirus may remain in people’s brains after infection and trigger relapses
in patients who thought they had recovered
Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in Mice @ mdpi.com
- Onset of severe disease in infected mice correlated with peak viral levels
in the brain
- Post-COVID Webinar Series
Covid-19 Long-Haul Symptoms May be Caused by Changes in Genes @ healthline.com
- Spike proteins on the novel coronavirus may alter gene expressions after they
infect healthy cells
- Novel coronavirus can cause long-term gene expression changes in otherwise
- SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus
Long COVID Looks a Lot Like Chronic Fatigue @ hopkinsmedicine.org
Life as a Long Hauler @ technologynetworks.com
- Symptoms of Omicron
- I had mild symptoms, but developed back-breaking pain. When I started taking
D-Ribose powder (along with the PHOS-NaK), my pain levels dropped considerably.
Top of Page
- COVID-19 Causes Cysts
Cutaneous Lesions and COVID-19 @ onlinelibrary.wiley.com
- An emerging area, in which there is little information, is the COVID-19-related
- Here, we report the case of a COVID-19 patient with painful cutaneous lesions
on posterior auricular for the first time in the ear
- Cutaneous lesions in the form of cystic eruptions appeared on his body
- At the time of examination, the auricular lesion was tender and warm, and
without any secretion or itching
- We suspect that vesicular lesions can be the less common symptoms after SARS-CoV-2
infection, or they might be late symptoms which could be neglected
- What Is It
Epidermoid Cyst @ everydayhealth.com
- True sebaceous cysts are caused by the glands that secrete the oily matter (sebum) that
helps lubricate your skin and the hair. They are not as common as epidermoid cysts, which
occur when skin cells accrue under the skin instead of being shed from its surface.
- Epidermoid Cyst
- Dome-shaped cysts can be pea-sized, or grow to a few inches or larger
- They grow very slowly, and they’re not painful
- You should be able to move them around
- They often have a central small black dot, or punctum, through which sebum accumulates
- The cyst excretes a cheese-like liquid that has a foul smell
- Cysts can disappear on their own without treatment
Sebaceous Cysts @ clevelandclinic.org
- Sebaceous cysts are far less common than other types of similar cysts such as
epidermoid cysts and pilar cysts
Pilar Cyst @ healthline.com
- How to Remove
How to Remove a Sebaceous Cyst @ wikihow.com
- Astringent herbs like aloe vera can be used to “pull out” the protein keratin, sebum,
and other fluids in the cyst.
- Apply apple cider vinegar to help dry out the cyst; apply it three to four times a day
- Cornea Edema
- People have developed edema in/around the eyes with COVID. The simple
5% salt (Na Cl) solution is what is recommended; this does help.
- Insomnia Information
- Birth Control Pills
6 Ways that Oral Contraceptive Pills Disrupts Sleep @ medium.com
- Altered sleep architecture -- women get less slow wave sleep and more REM sleep;
REM sleep is lighter, and you can be more easily awakened from it
- Anxiety -- generated chemicals don't interact with the GABA receptors to decrease
the stress response, and calm the mind and adrenals
- Depression -- increase monoamine oxidase which breaks down neurotransmitters
(Serotonin, dopamine, and noraadrenaline; serotonin is used to make melatonin)
- Can elevate your body temperature; a cooler core temperature makes you sleepy
- Nutrient deficiencies -- B vitamins, zinc, and magnesium
- Obstructive sleep apnoea
- Supplements for Slow-Wave Sleep
How Nutrition Affects Sleep @ runnersworld.com
- L-theanine (anxiety-reducing amino acid; works with GABA)
- Zinc, Iron, Magnesium
- Vitamin D (hormone that increases the amount of melatonin)
- Taurine, Carnitine, 5-HTP
- Phosphatidyl serine
- Magnolia bark extract
Magnolia Bark Affects Sleep @ thesleepdoctor.com
- St. John's Wort can cause trouble sleeping, vivid dreams, restlessness;
it has a plasma half-life of 24 hours
- Is not naturally produced by the body; found in green tea and mushrooms
- Is responsible fore the unique taste known as umani
- Induces brainwave paterns similar to those associated with meditation
- Is readily able to cross into the brain
- Helps to maintain healthy cortisol levels (reducing stress)
- Promotes sleep latency; take at least 40 minues prior to going to sleep
- 200 mg is the recommended dose of L-theanine (for sleep)
- L-theanine works better with GABA (GABA @ 20 mg/kg and L-theanine @ 100 mg/kg)
- GABA clinical dose is 100 mg
- Supplements at Walmart
Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses @ ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of Taste 1 Receptor
member 2 (T1R2) and Taste 1 Receptor Member 3 (T1R3).
- Four morphologic subtypes of TRCs have been identified.
- Type I glial-like cells detect salty taste.
- Type II cells express G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to detect
sweet, umami, and bitter tastes.
- Type III cells sense sour stimuli.
- Type IV cells likely represent stem or progenitor taste cells.
- Type II cells do not form traditional synapses with afferent nerve fibers.
Rather, these cells release ATP through hemichannels, which can then activate
purinergic receptors (P2N2 and P2X3) present on the cranial nerve fibers
innervating each taste bud.
- Type I cells degrade or absorb neurotransmitters.
Acid Stimulation (Sour Taste) Elicits GABA and Serotonin Release from Mouse Taste Cells
- Please notice that ATP is required for a person to taste something "sweet"
- Loss of Taste with COVID
- When I had the Alpha version of COVID, the loss of taste and smell was the first
symptom I noticed. I lost almost ALL sense of taste. However, my sense of "sweet"
was affected the most.
Taste Loss as a COVID-19 Symptom @ news-medical.net
- Some studies suggest that increased viral shedding in the saliva is linked to more taste loss
- This may indicate direct viral damage to the taste cells
- The taste receptors and the supporting cells of the taste buds on the tongue contains a
a viral receptor on the host cell, and the protein required to produce the processed
form of the viral spike
- Direct viral effects on the brain can lead to taste alterations
- Women notice this effect more than men
How COVID-19 Affects Your Mouth @ webmd.com
- Folks with COVID can have a reduced sense of taste (hypogueusia); a distorted sense of
taste (dysgeusia); or a total loss of all taste (ageusia)
- These complications seemed to be more common among European COVID patients
- Some COVID patients also reported lesions on or under their tongue or along the gums
and sides of the mouth
COVID 19-Inducted Smell and Taste Impairments@ frontiersin.org
- ACE2 is the main entrance receptor for SARS-Cov-2 interacting with its spike proteins
- The highest density fo these proteins is in the olfactory eopthelium
- ACE2 is mainly expressed in epithelian cells outside of taste papillae which contain
the taste buds
- A cytokine storm could make taste bud cells permissive to SARS-CoV-2
Taste Dysfunction and Long COVID-19 @ frontiersin.org
- Multiple entry receptors makes taste bud cells highly susceptible for SARS-CoV-2
- SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and replication has been shown to occur in human
taste bud cells
- Direct infection of the taste bud cells and consequent inflammation could affect
- Inflammation could increase epithelial cell exfoliation and constitute potential
sources of viral RNA in saliva
- Genetics Related to Loss of Taste and Smell
The UGT2A1/UGT2A2 Locus is Associated wtih COVID-19-related Loss of Smell or Taste @ nature.com
- Both genes are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, and play a role in metabolizing
- Loss of sense is smell is called anosmia
- Loss of sense of taste is called ageusia
- 68% of COVID-19-positive people reported a loss of smell or taste as a symptom
- Females reported the symptom more than men
- The genes relate to uridine diPHOSPHATE glycosyltransferases (enzymes)
- These enzymes eliminate the odorants that enter the nasal cavity and bind to
olfactory receptors (detoxification of the receptors)
- This results in the clearance of the odorant to facilitate the transient experience
- The loss of smell is related to damage to the cilian and olfactory epithelium, but
not infection of the olfactory neurons
- Vaccination Side Effects
CoronaVac @ wikipedia.org
- It is an inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinovac Biotech
- The two-dose vaccine has an efficacy rate of 50% for preventing symptomatic infection
- Common side effects are fatigue, diarrhea, and muscle pain
- A third dose is suggested
Sinovac Biotech @ wikipedia.org
- ATP is used all over your body in thousands of chemical processes.
- COIVD-19 (original, Alpha, Delta, or Omicron) affects the amount of ATP in your body.
- Many of the side effects of COVID (loss of taste, brain fog, muscle aches,
loss of hair, etc) can be directly related to low phosphorus or ribose
(which are used to make ATP).
- You can reduce/eliminate your symptoms of "long-haul" COVID by increasing your
levels of ATP. That is done by taking the precursors of ATP (namely, phosphorus
and ribose). Other things (like minerals) are also important.
In many cases, the "length" of your "long-haul" symptoms is directly related to
your diet (your intake of phosphorus, ribose, minerals, etc).
- Many people experience muscle loss/weakness and often look 10 years older after
contracting a case of COVID (even a mild case). Muscle loss is often considered to be
a normal part of "aging". This can be reversed by an intake of HMB and Vitamin D3.
- The last section of this webpage lists a few places which sell the supplements
mentioned in this webpage. I just googled the items, and listed some of the best prices.
- D-Ribose Powder
- Phosphorus Supplements
- GeriCare Phosphorus Supplement
- Cypress Pharmaceutical PHOS-NaK
- Rugby Na K Phosphorus
- Vitamin B4 - Adenine
- NaCl Eye Drops
Akorn NaCl Eye Drops, 5% solution @ theonlinedrugstore.com (0.5 fl oz; $8.25)
CVS Hypertonicity Eye Drops, 5% solution (0.5 fl oz; $23.49; buy 1 get 1 50% off)
Walgreens Eye Drops, 5% solution (0.5 fl oz; $19.99; buy 1 get 1 @ 50% off)
- Inactive Ingredients: Boric Acid, Hypromellose, Methylparaben, Propylene Glycol,
Propylparaben, Purified Water, Sodium Borate, Sodium Hydroxide
and/or Hydrochloric Acid may be added to adjust pH
- HMB Powder and Capsules
- Aloe Vera
created by Bonnie Lee Hill,
last modified on May 4, 2022